President Obama is bombing ISIS targets in Syria, an act of war against that country, in a widening of Mid-East conflict stemming from the ill fated Iraq War begun by George W. Bush and Dick Cheney.  The destabilization of Iraq caused by our invasion and overthrow if its government (under false pretenses) has resulted in the creation of ISIS.  It is a direct result of horrible foreign policy decisions and until Iraq develops a fully inclusive, effective central government which isn’t a US puppet regime such destabilization will continue.

We can again invade Iraq and bomb ISIS and, perhaps, destroy the group’s capabilities only to watch another such organization form and threaten stability in the region.  These are the results of having an idiot in the Oval Office who started a war for regime change without even understanding the dynamics at work in that nation.  Bush wanted to avenge his father’s honor and in so doing opened a Pandora’s Box of trouble which will last for decades.

Many foreign policy experts predicted this sort of long lasting instability after Bush and Cheney’s bloodlust and thirst for defense industry profits (Cheney’s Halliburton made $39 billion in profits from the war) motivated them to lie to the country about Saddam’s non existent WMD’s.  These are the fruits of the biggest foreign policy blunder of the last century.

ISIS does not pose a threat to our strategic national security.  They beheaded two American journalists who chose to enter a war zone voluntarily to do their jobs.  While regrettable we cannot choose to go to war every time an American makes a foolish or dangerous decision.  At some point they must accept personal responsibility for their entering a dangerous region.  Israel murdered thousands of Palestinians and many Americans sat back and cheered the slaughter.  What this says about pr priorities is sickening.

ISIS simply doesn’t have the capability to strike definitively inside this country.  Their 20-30,000 untrained fighters have to hold and secure the areas already under their control plus battle opposition forces in Iraq, Syria and the Kurdish region of Iraq.  Their estimated $3 million/day in revenues sound impressive until one understands they actually have expenses.  Since they control a considerable area in both Syria and Iraq remember that now, as the governing body, they must administer governmental services in this region.  Schools, prisons, road construction and repair, security and all those other normal governmental services normal in today’s world are now their responsibility.  This costs money.  Those government workers expect to be paid as do their fighters.  Their army also needs training and weapons.  These things cost money.  Three million a day won’t go far especially now that Obama is targeting their sources of revenue.  Bombing of their refinery and a tightening of contributions from wealthy Arabs and closing the black market for their oil will reduce their revenues considerably.

Frankly I’m more concerned with the threat of ebola more than I am ISIS.  Senators John McCain and Lindsay Graham can inflame passions all they want in their bloodlust for war but remember these two, a year ago, were screaming that we should align ourselves with ISIS against the Assad regime in Syria.  They have no credibility when it comes to national security.  I’d rather see us concentrate on eradicating ebola in western Africa before it migrates to other areas of the world.  This is the more serious threat.

Al Qaeda Post Bin Laden

Now that both Al Qaeda and the Taliban have acknowledged the execution of Osama Bin Laden by American commandos questions remain about the future of the world’s foremost terror organization.  It is obvious that efforts over ten years have resulted in a splintering of the group and a decentralization of its leadership.  We now know OBL was residing in Pakistan since 2003 and actively leading his followers through a laborious and slow courier system.  As much as we’d hate to admit it some of that credit must go to the Bush Administration which destroyed the Al Qaeda camps in Afghanistan and sent OBL on the run.  The fact they then dropped the ball and resorted to ineffective torture methods and Gitmo probably delayed his execution for many years.  How many lives were lost because of that we’ll never really know.

The big question is what comes next?  Al Qaeda in Yemen is the most effective cell of Al Qaeda at this time though one of its leaders was struck by an American drone just days after OBL’s killing.  Was this the first fruit of the trove of intelligence captured from the compound?  Probably.  Most of Al Qaeda’s other leadership are likely on the run now trying to avoid being hunted down.  That will disrupt them for the immediate future.  The fact Obama was able to find OBL and effectively destroy him will hurt recruitment efforts and send a chill down the spine of any terrorist considering future actions.  It won’t deter all of them however.

The relationship with Pakistan will be very tricky and delicate going forward.  The fact Bin Laden was living rather comfortably there for seven years is a huge embarrassment to the country’s leaders and the threat of aid cutoff as a result is very real.  It will be difficult for American lawmakers to justify continuing American aid to Pakistan after their failures.  Of course it is well within our national security interests, at this time, to keep the aid flowing.  We cannot pursue the war in Afghanistan without Pakistan where all the materials and supplies flow into the theater.

Long term the loss of OBL will likely be crippling to Al Qaeda.  Not only its leader he raised their money and his charisma and image in the Arab world was a key to its success.  Obama cut off the head of this snake and it may never grow a new one.  More likely the group will splinter even more and individual cells become more independent.  Some will die but some may flourish.  I do doubt any can pull off the spectacular type of attack seen on 9/11.  those require years of planning, scads of money and careful planning.  Bin Laden’s loss makes that difficult if nigh on impossible.

One thing I know for sure:  I wouldn’t want to be in Ayman al-Zawahiri’s shoes right now.  His robe has a huge red target right over his heart and his hat has one near his brain.  Two shots and a splash of water may be in his near future also.

DADT Update: The Service Chiefs Report, The Republicans Fret

There’s been a great deal of concern around here about the effort to prepare the US military for the full repeal of “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” (DADT), and I’ve had a few words of my own regarding how long the process might take.

There was a hearing before the House Armed Services Committee last Thursday that had all four Services represented; with one exception these were the same Service Chiefs that were testifying last December when the bill to set the repeal process in motion was still a piece of prospective legislation.

At that time there was concern that the “combat arms” of the Marines and the Army were going to be impacted in a negative way by the transition to “open service”; the Commandant of the Marine Corps and the Army’s Chief of Staff were the most outspoken in confirming that such concerns exist within the Pentagon as well.

We now have more information to report-including the increasing desperation of some of our Republican friends-and if you ask me, I think things might be better than we thought.

The Governments of the States Parties to this Constitution on behalf of their peoples declare:

That since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defenses of peace must be constructed;

That ignorance of each other’s ways and lives has been a common cause, throughout the history of mankind, of that suspicion and mistrust between the peoples of the world through which their differences have all too often broken into war…

–From the Constitution of the United Nations Educational,

Scientific, And Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

So let me start with the good news; I’ll do that by telling you what I though would happen, compared to what the Service Chiefs are now saying is going to happen:

My guess was that, due to all the process involved, we could be looking at a full year for implementation, and if the Services felt that they had to rotate all the overseas deployed forces back to the USA before they could complete training, you could easily be looking at 18 months.

That, as it turns out, was wildly inaccurate.

The Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, Peter W. Chiarelli, reported Thursday that his Service might be able to report they’re ready to certify by May 15th of this year; to make that happen they are going to train the troops overseas and at home, both at the same time, and they wanted us to know that they’ve already completed much of the “train the trainer” work already. They also expect to certify after about 50% of the training is complete instead of waiting for 100%, and that’s because the leadership believes they’ll know of any implementation problems that are likely to crop up by then.

The most outspoken opponent of the change in December, Marine Commandant General James Amos, says that he’s seeing far fewer problems than he expected, and he believes the move to open service won’t have any serious impact on his force.

Here’s how the Defense Department reported Amos’ testimony:

A department [of Defense] survey last year showed that about 60 percent of Marines in combat units had concerns about the repeal, Amos noted, but those concerns seem to be waning. The general visited with Marines in Afghanistan over Christmas and spoke with their commander this morning on the issue, he said.

“I’m looking specifically for issues that might arise out of Tier 1 and Tier 2 and, frankly, we just haven’t seen it,” Amos said. “There hasn’t been the recalcitrant push back, the anxiety about it” from forces in the field.

Amos said the Marines’ commander told him, “‘Quite honestly, they’re focused on the enemy.'”

The Navy says they expect to complete their Tier 3 training (the final phase of training) as soon as the end of June; Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Gary Roughead told the Committee that he foresees no problem achieving a successful transition to open service.

(A quick note to the reader: I have been known to write satirical stories with crazy made-up character names, but the actual name of the actual Admiral who is tasked with leading the Navy into the era of open service is actually…Roughead. Some may consider this to be evidence of Intelligent Design; I continue to disbelieve.)

Air Force Chief of Staff Norton Schwartz, who also seemed to suggest, back in December, that trouble might be waiting on the road ahead, seemed far more confident this week; it looks like the Air Force might have Tier 3 training wrapped up by the July 4th holiday.

The Service Chiefs also announced that those who have been discharged under DADT will be eligible to petition to return to the military.

There is today a mechanism in place within the Defense Department to consider the petitions of those who voluntarily leave the military and wish to reapply; that system looks at what jobs are available, and, if it meets the needs of the Services, a job offer is extended to the applicant. (The individual might not return at the same grade or rank they held when leaving, however, and that would also depend on the military’s interpretation of what best fits military “force structure” requirements.)

At the hearing the Committee members were told that those who were discharged under DADT could reapply under the same rules that exist today for those who leave voluntarily; the same system that’s in place today will “work” those applications.

There was some not unexpected bad news: Republican Members of the House are just so over the top on objecting to this one that it’s ridiculous and funny and maddening and just awful, all at once.

There was begging (“if there was just some way the Service Chiefs could convince the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs not to certify, then we could all be saved” was the gist of that one), and fake expertise (“when I served we were all afraid of ’em, and I can’t believe today’s troops still aren’t” is the rough outline of how that argument went and California’s Duncan Hunter was an example of one Congressman who fit into that “genre”); there was even an offer to do another survey so we can “do what the troops really want” (I can save y’all the time and trouble: what they really want…is to get the hell out of Afghanistan).

If the Grim Weeper had been in the room, I’m sure he would have had a big ol’ blubbery cry over the tragedy that’s befallen the Nation on this somber occasion-and it’s a good thing he wasn’t, because I have no doubt such a display would have once again caused Tonstant Weader to fwow up, just like that time back at Pooh Corner.

Among the Republicans there was a lot of preoccupation with the potential for men, in combat, in those close, confined, spaces…men who are depending on each other, night and day…to be subject to the advances of other strong, powerful, muscular, men in a variety of manly uniforms-I mean, as far as I can tell, there are Republicans who see this as some kind of eventual “Livin’ La Vida Loca” kind of situation, only, you know, a bit more butch, and I would love to know what in the world they think life aboard a Ballistic Missile Submarine or on a Forward Operating Base in Southeastern Afghanistan is really like?

Oddly enough, the predominantly male Committee didn’t seem as concerned about the possibility of female same-sex relationships impacting military readiness and unit cohesion in a negative way; if anyone has a guess as to why that might be the case I’m sure I’d love to hear it.

The military, to their credit, did a lot of pushing back against the Republicans. For example, at one point there were questions as to whether this would cause an unacceptable number of troops to leave the all-volunteer military. The response: right now the real problem is that as we withdraw from Iraq and troopers come home to a bad economy, too few want to leave.

They also spent a lot of time pointing out that “standards of conduct” already exist to manage sexual contacts and harassing behaviors between opposite-gendered persons, and that those very same rules will be used to manage issues of conduct in a same-sex context.

Risk mitigation is suddenly very important for some Republicans, and they do not want to repeal if there is any risk at all that the move could impact combat readiness or pose a hazard to the force.  

That line of logic led to one of the most stupid questions I have ever heard asked in a hearing, ever, in decades of actually paying attention, and it came from Republican Vicky Hartzler (MO-04).

What she was trying to do was to show that the Generals would not want to recommend policies that add to the risk facing the troops. What she had been told was that the future risks of open service were as yet unknown (hard to know today with 100% certainty what the future holds), but that, based on progress made so far, the risks seemed to be low and that mitigations seemed to be in place for currently identified potential problems.

But what she asked the commanding officers of four military services was…wait for it…whether they had ever recommended sending their troops into heightened risk environments?

They actually all kind of seemed a bit stunned by the question-but they kept their poker faces-and then they reminded her that sending troops into combat is actually a bit of a high-risk activity.

The deer then jumped out of the way of the headlights, and the hearing resumed.

Look, folks, I am not passing along any news when I tell you that DADT still scares the loose buttons off a bunch of suits in Washington and that they still want to have this out anyplace they can-but it is news to find out that they are ahead of where they could have been over at the Pentagon, and that all the Service Chiefs do really seem to be on board, at least publicly, and that they are all reporting fewer problems than they expected as this process moves forward.

In a tough week it’s nice to report good news, and I think this qualifies-and if things continue at this pace, we could see certification and full open service before Labor Day.

Now I know we don’t usually give Labor Day presents, and to make it worse, we’re hard to shop for…but if there’s one thing everyone loves to get, it’s a More Perfect Union-and I bet once we try it on, there’s no way it’s going back.

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Energy the Next Great Thing

This is a guest blog posting by Hal Donohue of Operation Free.

Energy the Next Great Thing

by Hal Donohue

The sky was a vivid blue; the Arabian Sea heavy with ships and the afternoon sun glared unforgivably.  We traveled down a dusty road teeming with people walking, sitting or riding in/on cars, trucks and donkey carts. Large hotels bore familiar names  while many strange appearing buildings had very unfamiliar names. Then right there, up against the curb, was a dead donkey with two huge buzzards feasting on the carcass. No doubt about it; I was on the Indian subcontinent.  This was nineteen seventies Pakistan.  I arrived on a military mission and learned far more than military matters.

Approximately ten years ago, I was asked to evaluate the feasibility of constructing an oil refinery in the Karachi area. Construction was not economically feasible because the electric grid could not provide reliable electricity and there was insufficient fresh water.  Americans tend to be isolated from the third and developing worlds.  Often we don’t understand the fragile edge that much of humanity still teeters on for survival. Meanwhile the dangers increase.

Now another generation of Americans is familiar with the rest of the world. A group of men and women who realize just how precarious life can be and how small is our world. Jon Powers, Chief Operating Officer of the Truman National Security Project and an Iraq war vet said:

“Veterans understand the connection between energy security, climate change and national security,”  

I joined approximately 150 primarily Iraq and Afghanistan veterans from Operation Free , a coalition of veterans and national security organizations, who gathered at the White House to discuss climate change, energy and national security.  Wonks? Hardly, primarily pointy-end soldiers who look about the world as they know it and want to be certain the United States remains safe and secure. To their view the greatest immediate and long term threat to our national security is climate change and energy policy. You may say “huh?”.  Long ago, I was hired by an energy company after retiring from the Air Force.  My strong economics background was a factor but the major reason for my hire was that I understood US and worldwide energy distribution because for the last twenty years I prepared to use or destroy it. Fortunes were to be made just trading off these various national and international energy imbalances.


Our energy consumption is endangering US national security. But it isn’t just our energy consumption; it is where we get that energy.  Yes, I  refer to hostile nations like Iran or countries opposed to our very freedom like Saudi Arabia. Also, I refer to carbon based fuels from coal to natural gas. Climate change is real and is happening. If you do not believe the vast majority of scientists, go visit your local farmers and ask if farming is changing. I did ask and received tales of crop substitutions, drought and change, some good and some bad. But this aside, these soldiers know a warming climate is changing weather patterns and water levels worldwide. The result will be displaced populations, famine, disease and war. This international turmoil will cause an increasingly unstable and violent globe requiring US involvement for defense and disaster relief. The Department of Defense, CIA and State Department all agree and already are taking action.

Our world-wise soldiers understand that energy is the mission of their generation. They call for a grand redirection of society. Recognizing that America’s strength has always been cheap energy, these leaders call for major innovations. When threatened with Canadian intrusion and competition for Great lakes trade, New York State realized that the only way to develop  that great state was canals, not roads. This state built the Erie Canal; a project declared too expensive, impossible to accomplish and a waste of time. The canal was built and  cheap water power opened the Great Lakes to trade and settlement, developed towns and villages all across New York State and established New York City as THE port in the western hemisphere. Some scholars also credit its development as providing the industrialization and transportation base that defeated the South so decisively during the Civil War.

During the worst of the Civil War, the nation began the development of the transcontinental railroad to secure America as shining from sea to sea   Again, the timid and frightened said it was too expensive, couldn’t be done and was not needed. They were wrong. The continent and the nation were united and secure while rampant American ingenuity and enthusiasm developed the United States in ways never imagined. This is our history! World War II industrial output and the Cold War Space Race reacted to national threats and accomplished amazing things which changed our country in ways never imagined. THIS is our heritage. These veterans know it and accept the challenge.

The men and women of  Operation Free say that NOW is the time to launch our own “Erie Canal”,  “Transcontinental Railroad” and “Space Race”. The cost is approximately the price of a glass of milk a day but it will transform America.  The return on investment from unleashing our vaunted ingenuity, enthusiasm and work ethic is a secure nation and an economic powerhouse.

Hal Donahue is a retired Lieutenant Colonel in the United States Air

Force. He served throughout Europe, Asia and the Middle East, on the

staff of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and with the British Royal Air

Force. Following retirement, Mr. Donahue was employed as a vice

president of several major energy companies. Mr. Donahue has served as

a member of the board for several corporate and not for profit

organizations. He now to devotes his time to assisting military

veterans and working to elect veterans and supporters to all levels of

political office. He and his wife of 40 years, Marg, reside in

Scranton, PA and are the parents of three children. Mr. Donahue is a

graduate of Colgate University with a BA in Economics and he received

his MS in Administration from Central Michigan University.

“We Will Kill Your Children”

I predicted that revelations of what was done under George W. Bush and Dick Cheney would shock us when it finally was revealed.  In the past week we’ve had numerous shocks.  Today the ACLU obtained documents detailing how international laws and treaties were shattered and the America we knew and loved became a barbaric civilization.

Threats of murder, the use of power drills, firing a gun in an adjacent room to simulate the murder of another detainee, repeated tortures, all sorts of unspeakable atrocities were conducted in our names.  Blackwater was used by the CIA to assemble assassination squads so even the illegalities of war were privatized.

Kit Bond is criticizing the new policy of putting the responsibility for interrogation into the hands of the professionals to whom it should have been entrusted in the beginning:  the FBI.  Their skilled experts know how to extract valuable information without the use of torture and atrocities but Bush and Cheney refused to allow the rule of law to take control.  What else is new:  the subverted the rule of law everywhere.  Congressman Bond is afraid the new policy will politicize the effort when the exact opposite is happening.  Obama is depoliticizing what Bush politicized.  Bond was AWOL when it really mattered.  

Finally the Obama Administration is taking action to officially investigate war crimes.  Make no doubt about it, threatening to kill someone’s children because they won’t cooperate is a war crime.  Who knows, maybe we even did that too.  Attorney General Eric Holder appointed John Durham to investigate.

The Bush officials are not solely to blame.  The Fox Network dramatized war crimes through their popular “24” series about a rogue agent who favored torture.  Millions of Americans loved the cowboy mentality.  Unfortunately this attitude is that of barbaric civilizations not advanced ones dedicated to human rights.

America will never again be that shining beacon of light in a troubled world.  We have now descended into the nether regions of rogue nations.  How proud all those Republicans must be of how they destroyed 200 years of bright, shining democratic leadership.  We must all hang our heads in shame because we are all Americans.  We all must share the blame.


To hear most Americans the piracy problems around the world just happened with the taking of the Maersk Alabama last week.  Why is it we managed to ignore this problem plaguing every other maritime country until it hit home?  Until Captain Phillips was captured most Americans ignored the Somali pirates.  We and many other nations have stationed our navies on those seas trying to keep the shipping channels as safe as we can.  It’s a big ocean however and no number of ships can keep all of it safe.

The action of the Navy to rescue the Captain was predictable and necessary.  I thought a group of snipers would wait until each of the kidnappers were in their gun sights before taking them out and that happened yesterday.  Now the Navy needs to sail to the ports where the other captive ships are docked and begin shelling the homes, towns and businesses fueling this piracy.  It is time to send a clear message that piracy has a cost so steep there is no profit to be gained.

Gitmo: How the Media Gets It Wrong

The news networks and papers have been having a field day telling people how former Gitmo prisoners became terrorists after being released by George W. Bush.  They are doing this in response to Republican talking points distributed in an attempt to keep the President from closing the concentration camp in Cuba.  Make no mistake, Camp Delta is a concentration camp.  People were rounded up with no probable cause they committed any crime, often in return for bounties to turn in any Arab, many were children, and all were abused, humiliated and some were tortured.  They were denied all rights to due process by the American government.  This defines Camp Delta as a concentration camp.

The GOP wants to keep it open and in business.  The Bush/Cheney/Rumsfeld policy of opening a concentration camp and using torture was a complete failure and the presence of former prisoners on the fields of terror is proof of its failure not reason to keep the Camp open.  This is nothing more than the logical, sequential outcome of a policy which was designed to fail from the outset.  You cannot treat humans in this way and not expect to come out of it transformed.  We, as we all predicted, created more terrorists because of our failed policy.  Those 14 year old boys we captured, detained and abused will be the Osama Bin Ladens of the next generation.

Our children and grandchildren will be the victims of Bush’s failed policies but the media ignores this aspect of the story.  It is more sensational to tell the public 61 former prisoners have returned to the battlefields.  That figure isn’t true but it does serve to underscore the failure of the policy.  If only four or five prisoners were radicalized to the extent the joined Al Qaeda as the result of American torture, abuse and humiliation that would be awful.. The media isn’t portraying this as the reason Gitmo failed and why it must be closed however.  Not seeing the forest for the trees they obliviously report this as evidence Gitmo should remain.

How quickly we shed our morals and values after 9/11.  How quickly we listen to a news media which gets the story wrong time after time.  Gitmo’s Camp Delta created more terrorists and we have that evidence.  That is the reason it must be closed.

The Return of Diplomacy

The key phrase in yesterday’s confirmation hearing for Hillary Clinton was “smart power.”  This illustrates a change in course from the past eight years of “stupid power.”  The shoot first ask questions later cowboy approach of the Bush Administration is remarkable.  This signals the return of diplomacy.  I’m not sure George W. Bush ever realized the Department of State existed or what it did.  Donald Rumsfeld spent all his time marginalizing it and denying State equal footing on national security policy.

Smart power means using all resources available to achieve peace, national security and progress through peaceful means.  I was reminded how misguided we have been this morning watching Osama Bin Forgotten’s latest video release.  The man responsible for 9/11 continues breathing free air and walking around as a free man.  This is the personification of George Bush’s foreign policy failures.

Obama Names National Security Team

President elect Barack Obama formally named his national security team this morning.  Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton will be Secretary of State, Robert Gates will continue at Defense, Eric Holder will be Attorney General, Gen. Jim Jones as National Security Adviser, Gov. Janet Napolitano will lead the Department of Homeland Security and Dr. Susan Rice will be UN Ambassador.

Hillary Clinton should prove to be an effective and strong Secretary of State.  She will also be the third Secretary of State in recent years to be a woman following Madeline Albright and Condi Rice.  No longer is it an anomaly to have a woman in this position.  As this glass ceiling has now been shattered one remains in the Oval Office.

Robert Gates has distinguished himself as Secretary of Defense.  He succeeded a complete disaster in Donald Rumsfeld and is rebuilding the military, the support and confidence of the troops, and ended the fierce bureaucratic wars created by his predecessor.

Jim Jones, by all accounts, is a superb choice for National Security Adviser and Susan Rice served as an Undersecretary of State for Africa under Bill Clinton.  I do still wonder what she thinks of Naomi Klein however.  I have some doubts about Dr. Rice from my encounter with her team during last spring’s primary.

Eric Holder has his work cut out for him as AG.  This is one more Department which was literally destroyed by George W. Bush.  There is a huge amount of work to be done rebuilding Justice and insuring an end to political prosecutions.

This is a strong team.  It is strong on experience and brings new blood to the national scene.  Much is being made of the “Team of Rivals” aspect but, having read that book also I think it is overblown.  Lincoln served in an even more troubled time than now.  He assembled what he thought was the strongest possible team for challenging times.  This is what every President must and, usually, does.

The Mumbai Attacks

The horrid attacks on ten locations in Mumbai, India portend the end results of a failed foreign policy.  Five Americans were among the 183 dead (so far) and the terrorists targeted Americans and Britons while also attacking a Jewish Center and killing hostages.

Muslims see our invasion of Iraq as a proxy war for Israel (as do many Americans).  The defining of the Iraq War as one of Christianity versus Islam, as many stupid Americans do and did all through the campaign season is radicalizing many Muslims.  This was very evident to those of us covering the McCain-Palin rallies:  an attitude fomented by right wing media that all Muslims are evil, this is a religious war against Islam, and that we have to kill them all to be safe.

The Islamic press plays these video clips and publishes these diatribes endlessly and it is creating a very dangerous environment.  Attacks like Mumbai where Americans are targeted are the fruit of such mindless, stupid policy.  

Blame is being directed at Pakistan but let us recall we first thought Oklahoma City was done by foreign terrorists.  Proof must be established before more reckless behavior creates more hatred and animosity.  India and Pakistan have long festering issues going back many years.  That doesn’t mean the attacks in India came from Pakistan however. Responding recklessly in the heat of the moment isn’t good policy.